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Dog Food Glossary

A

Animal Digest

An ingredient that contains muscle and soft animal tissue that is supplied by USDA-inspected facilities for use in dry dog food and treats. All of the materials are hydrolyzed into peptides in a manner similar to how they would be digested in the body. This process results in a liquid substance that can also be converted into a powder or a paste. The tissues and muscles cook in a vat with the use of enzymatic hydrolysis and chemicals, which turn into a liquid form as the ingredient is created. Animal digest is also used in different types of supplements. It not only has flavor but also contains protein and healthy fats and is used in many dog food products. It’s commonly used in small amounts because it’s incredibly palatable. Animal digest is often sprayed on kibble or mixed into the dog food to enhance flavor.

The animal tissues and muscles used in animal digest are often derived from different types of animals, including sheep, pigs, goats, rats and horses. It is exclusive of hair, teeth, feathers, hooves and horns. It is not derived from unclean or decomposed sources. Dog food flavors tend to come from the use of animal digest. Commercial dog food products that are labeled “chicken flavor,” for instance, often contain animal digest that is derived from chicken.

Animal Fat

Beef fat that is naturally preserved with mixed-tocopherols and contains vitamin E with a healthy balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. The fatty acids that it offers can improve an animal’s hair and skin. It is used in commercial pet food to provide dogs with a source of energy to ensure that fat-soluble vitamins can move throughout the body as they’re digested. It’s also used as a preservative for the fat in commercial dog food to maintain the freshness, safety and overall quality of the product. 73 percent of dog food contains animal fat or oil. The fat may also be derived from lamb, pork and poultry. Other types of animal fat may also contain vegetable oil, lard, beef tallow and mineral oil.

Animal fat is often produced as a byproduct of meat meal once the meat is heated and ground and the fat melts and is drained. Manufacturers often include the ingredient in dog food products for added flavor and the healthy fats that it provides. They may also use different types of animal fat, depending on the cost of the ingredient. The fat increases the smell of the food product to make it more appealing.

Ascorbic Acid

A naturally occurring compound that has antioxidant properties and is a water-soluble vitamin. It functions in fighting bacterial infections in the body and has a detoxifying reaction. It’s used as a natural preservative in dog food to maintain the freshness and quality of the product while also extending its shelf life. Ascorbic acid is also used in dog food and contains vitamin C, which is found in many fruits and vegetables. Although human bodies do not produce vitamin C, dogs naturally produce a minimal amount of the vitamin through their liver, but still need to obtain additional vitamin C from their diet. It also offers benefits that include alleviating the symptoms that are associated with joint and musculoskeletal disorders. Ascorbic acid can also improve collagen synthesis and provide immune system support.

Ascorbic acid is often derived from natural foods that include cranberries, red peppers and gooseberries. It can also be created artificially by scientists in a laboratory by mixing corn syrup with hydrochloric acid. Common names of ascorbic acid include Ester-C, ascorbate, stabilized vitamin C, calcium ascorbate and vitamin C. It is recommended for dogs who suffer from stress or have skin disorders, and can also improve the animal’s ability to resist diseases and recover from illnesses or ailments.

B

Beef Byproduct

Clean, non-rendered parts that are obtained from cows after they’ve been slaughtered. The ingredient can come from the lungs, brain, spleen, kidneys, fatty tissue, bone, blood, stomachs and intestines. These parts are cooked then dried before being added to pet food. Any giblets that aren’t refrigerated after an animal is slaughtered can be stored for 24 hours in a hot offal to be used legally for dog food but can not be used for human consumption. Condemned parts or animals that are dead-on-arrival may also be used in beef byproduct. It is often used in canned pet food and by-product meals. The beef byproduct is turned into a stew that is intentionally over-cooked before it’s added to commercial pet food products.

Beef byproduct has a high protein content and is easily digestible for dogs. It is known to be consistent with how it’s processed and is low in ash. The ingredient is commonly used in dog food because it’s inexpensive and has an acceptable quality. It’s a source of 70 to 80 percent of protein and healthy fats, in addition to vitamins and minerals. The ingredient must follow strict guidelines established by the Association of American Feed Control.

Beet Pulp

A slow to moderately fermented fiber source that is a popular feed additive in dog food. It’s the byproduct of raw sugar that is extracted from commercially grown sugar beets, which are grown in large quantities. The pulp doesn’t contain a lot of sugar and is used as an energy source that contains fiber. It adds moisture and bulk to animal stools that benefits the colon and can benefit dogs that have runny stools. It’s used as one of the top sources of fiber for dog foods. In some cases, it can lead to the swelling of the stomach and plunging of the intestinal villus. It’s considered to be a more viable form of fiber for dogs because of its benefit to intestinal bacteria. It can help dogs that have digestive issues by removing moisture in the digestive tract.

Although many vegetable and fruit byproducts are considered to be low-quality, beet pulp is a high-quality ingredient that offers gentle fiber that won’t disrupt the digestive tract. It does not contain any toxins and does not affect the color of the dog’s coat when consumed. It also works with other nutrients that are consumed to provide optimal nutrition to the animal.

Beta Carotene

A precursor to vitamin A in the family of carotenoids, which provides the dark orange and yellow color shade in vegetables and plants. The vitamin is not produced in dogs’ bodies and can only be ingested by consuming plant material or in supplemental form. It’s considered to be an essential part of the diet because it boosts the immune system and is absorbed well in dogs’ intestinal tracts to improve the quality of their coats and skin. It’s also necessary to maintain good vision by traveling from the bloodstream to the retina in the eye. Beta carotene is a well-known antioxidant that can reduce the risk of infection and disease. Many manufacturers choose to add beta carotene to their dog food products because it protects the cells from free radical damage and boosts the immune system, which improves the quality of the food.

The ingredient is typically created synthetically before it’s added to dog food to ensure that adequate nutrition is provided in the commercial product. Beta carotene contains 150 percent more antioxidants compared to blueberries, which is why it’s one of the main vitamins that can be found in dog food. It can also prevent cataracts and other eye diseases from occurring over time.

BHA/BHT

Butylated Hydroxyanisole/Butylated Hydroxytoluene is a chemical preservative that is added to oils that are used in dog foods and treats. BHA is a combination of isomers 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and BHT is a mixture of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; methyl-di-tert-butylphenol; and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-cresol.

The ingredient is derived from natural preservatives that are found in all dry dog food. It’s added to commercial products to extend the shelf life of the product by up to a year, and is one of the more inexpensive preservatives available. The FDA states that it can be used safely to preserve the fats and oils that are added to the pet food and to prevent them from spoiling or becoming oxidized. It’s also easy for dogs to digest, but is known as a possible carcinogen by the State of California. BHA/BHT is commonly used in cosmetics, petroleum, embalming fluids and pesticides. Although it’s deemed to be safe to use, studies have shown that the ingredient can be difficult to break down in the body, specifically in the liver.

BHA/BHT is commonly used in dry dog foods that prone to spoiling quickly from air exposure. Canned dog food does not contain the preservative because they’re air-tight.

C

Carrageenan

A natural resource additive that is used in both dry, canned and wet dog foods as an emulsifier. It is found in approximately 70 percent of dog foods and has been used for hundreds of years, specifically in Irish Moss in kitchens. It’s added to fill and thicken food products to increase the texture once it is cooked. Although it was once naturally made, carrageenan is now a highly processed ingredient that requires strong alkaline solvents to be extracted. Most carrageenan comes from Chile, Argentina and Peru.

There are two different grades of carrageenan: an undegraded carrageenan and a degraded carrageenan. Degraded carrageenan is considered to be more potent. The FDA states that it is safe to use in food processing for both human and dog food. It does not have any nutritional value. It’s a carbohydrate structure that is derived from red edible seaweed and is processed by combining it with alkali. Seaweed contains trace minerals and nutrients. Although the additive is commonly used in the pet industry, more companies are choosing alternative thickening agents to use and are labeling their food products as “Carrageenan-free.” Studies show that the food additive is linked to inflammation, tumors and lesions in the intestinal tract.

Cellulose Gum

is derived from the cell wall of plants, such as cotton seeds and wood pulp, to thicken dog food and create a creamy texture without adding additional fat. It’s a molecule that is made up of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, and is commonly found in different types of plant matter. The ingredient can suppress the appetite and works as a filler in foods to keep the dog feeling full. The ingredient is also commonly used in household products, pharmaceutical drugs and toothpaste. It’s a safe food additive that doesn’t offer any nutritional value or health benefits but can make the dog food more appealing. Cellulose gum contains a different type of fiber than what is found in whole fruits and vegetables. It’s processed into a white, odorless powder that must pass a high standard, which allows it to be a cleaner ingredient that is used in the pet industry. It’s only produced in accordance with the FDA Good Manufacturing Practices, which makes it safe for animals to ingest.

The food industry also uses cellulose gum in sauces, frozen yogurt and ice cream. It is often listed under the names microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose and MCC.

Chicory Root Extract

Is known as Cichorium intybus. It is a flowery plant that resembles dandelions and is native to Europe. The root of the chicory plant is baked and ground to be used as a pet food additive. A minimal amount of the ingredient is typically used in commercial pet food products. It’s considered to be an effective probiotic that can maintain the healthy gut bacteria in dogs, which can boost the immune system and reduce the risk of diseases. It contains up to 20 percent inulin, which is similar to starch and contains fiber. Inulin can also enhance the flavor of the product. In some cases, the inulin is extracted from the chicory root extract before it’s used as an ingredient in dog food.

The soluble, prebiotic fiber assists with mineral absorption and promotes digestive health in dogs, which is why most pet food brands include it in most products. It can also control the population of bad bacteria in the gut. Although studies of the effect of inulin on pets are limited, more manufacturers are choosing to add chicory root extract to their products due to the health benefits that it has on humans.

Choline Chloride

A naturally occurring element that is a source of the essential B vitamin, which is found in both plant and animal sources. It is commonly found in eggs, fish and meats. Dogs’ bodies can store choline chloride over time, but it must be replenished each day to avoid deficiency. This molecule is vital because it allows other molecules to function to their full potential in the body. Choline chloride is added to most pet food products to support the health of the dog. As a water-soluble nutrient, it promotes proper liver function, brain development, muscle movement and nerve function. It can even reduce the risk of dementia in dogs by improving cell growth and gene expression. The element can also be used to alleviate adrenal diseases, diabetes and seizures in animals. Potatoes and grains don’t contain choline chloride, which is why pet food companies to add the ingredient to dry foods are they are processed.

Choline chloride is known to prevent abnormal fat accumulation in the body and is also considered to be a precursor to acetylcholine synthesis. It can also prevent toxicity from occurring in the liver. It is considered to be safe and doesn’t have any side effects.

Corn Germ Meal

A natural grain and source of protein that consists of corn germ and additional parts of the corn kernel with all of the oil removed. It’s often used as a filler in dog food products and treats. It has a low degree of disintegration and is amplified under thermal treatment. It comes from the corn wet milling industry. Corn germ meal is used by commercial pet food manufacturers to support muscle development and boost pet immune systems because it’s a natural source of protein. It’s a natural ingredient that contributes to the amino acid profile of the dog for their diet. The ingredient also contributes to the texture of dry dog food. It is a valuable source of digestible carbohydrate and fiber for dogs, as it stimulates gastric digestion. Corn germ meal is an inexpensive byproduct that is also used as a binder. The texture of the ingredient is similar to coarse soy meal.

Corn germ meal can also be found under the name of maize germ meal and has a highly variable composition. It’s also beneficial because it’s a useful carrier for liquid nutrients in the body. It contains approximately 45 to 50 percent of oil and 85 percent of the oil kernel. It is often mixed with other by-products before it’s sold and distributed.

Corn Syrup/Corn

A sugar that is used as a sweetener to enhance the flavor of dog food and treats and make it more palatable. Corn syrup is also used to soften the texture of certain foods, prevent crystallization of sugar and add volume. It is also known as glucose syrup. It is manufactured in a multi-step bioprocess by adding enzyme a-amylase to a mixture of water and cornstarch. The starch is broken down by the enzyme into oligosaccharides before they’re broken down into glucose molecules. Corn syrup is also one of the primary ingredients that is used in commercial beverages and food products for humans.

Corn is also used as an ingredient in the pet industry because it is highly digestible and supplies the body with energy. It also contains essential fatty acids for a healthy coat and skin. The quality proteins in corn are also necessary for muscle and tissue growth. It is often used in both dry and wet dog food products. It also contains beta-carotene, vitamin E and lutein, which are natural antioxidants that can improve the immune system. In some cases, however, corn has been proven to be difficult for dogs to digest and is linked to allergies.

D

Defluorinated Phosphate

Is primarily used in dog food as a calcium supplement and tartar control agent for their teeth. It’s an odorless, non-hydroscopic and non-caking powder, or granulas. It has a light or dark brown color shade. Defluorinated phosphate is also used to improve the texture of dog food and make it thicker. The ingredient cannot absorb water and is insoluble. Studies have shown that it can cause kidney stones to develop. Many dog food companies use the ingredient to contribute to the nutritional value of the food being processed because its high calcium, fluorine and phosphorus content. It contains approximately 6,200 milligrams of elemental calcium and 5,200 milligrams of elemental lemon soluble phosphorus per ounce. It is known to assist in helping puppies develop stronger bones, as well as strengthen their teeth. An additional benefit is its ability to aid in the healing process of puppies suffering from injuries by working as a protein synthesis for tissue repair.

The ingredient is also known to eliminate calcium, sodium and phosphorus deficiencies. It can be used as a milled product or as granules. Lead scientific institutions tested DFP and gave it high ratings. It is currently certified and allowed for application.

E

Ethoxyquin

A chemical fat preservative and common dog food additive used in both direct and indirect methods. The pet food industry has been using this preservative for more than 35 years. This ingredient isn’t listed on most packaging labels. Ethoxyquin is controversial because it’s also used in rubber and pesticides. Most food experts agree that, when used safely, the ingredient is not toxic to animals. In some cases, it may cause elevated liver enzymes in the blood and the accumulation of hemoglobin pigment in the liver. The ingredient can darken in color and polymerize when it’s exposed to light and air.

The preservative is approved and regulated by the Food and Drug Administration and the Association of American Feed Control Officials. It is able to remain stable at the high temperatures required for safe dog food processing. Many manufacturers use it to protect the fat and oil from degrading in processed foods, as well as prevent calories from becoming lost or the product from becoming rancid. Studies have shown that the ingredient can have a toxic effect on dogs’ bodies, but only when it’s consumed in excessive amounts.

F

Feathers

Feather meal that can be made palatable and is offered in products for dogs that suffer from severe allergies. Feathers are used to benefit dogs who need extra nutrition because they haven’t been able to obtain nutrients or vitamins from other proteins due to their allergies. It is also may be listed as hydrolyzed poultry by-products aggregate. It’s processed by breaking down the feathers into amino acids, which is known as hydrolyzing. The biological value of feathers is zero, which means that it can’t be used by the dog’s cells. A common risk of using feathers in animal food products is contamination. Studies have found that most feathers that have been tested have been contaminated with personal care products and up to 10 different drug care products. Feathers are also added because they’re nutritious and can improve the overall health and vitality of dogs who may be nutrient-deficient due to allergies. Palletizers are added to increase the flavor and taste of the feather meal. The ingredient is not considered to be cheap or inexpensive and costs more than chicken meat, which is commonly used in dog food products. It’s often limited in supply and can be difficult to source in the dog food industry.

G

Glyceryl Monostearate

A monoglyceride that is commonly used as an emulsifier in dog food products and treats. It’s a lipophilic non-ionic surfactant that has an HLB of 3.6 to 4.2. As a white, odorless flaky powder, glyceryl monostearate tastes sweet but is often used as a filler ingredient. It is effective as a caking agent and is also considered to be a preservative that extends the shelf life of the dog food. It’s an emulsifying agent for waxes, solvents and oils. The ingredient is also used to create a protective coating for hygroscopic powders.

The product adds extra body and texture to dry dog food and can also add a smooth texture to wet dog food. The ingredient is also used in cosmetics, body building products and hair care items. Not only is glyceryl monostearate FDA-approved for animal consumption, but it’s also approved for human consumption and is used in some processed foods. Some studies show that it can cause toxicity in certain dog organs. It can contain up to 200 ppm butylated hydroxytoluene. Glyceryl monostearate may also contain glyceryl distearate, free glycerol and glyceryl tristearate depending on how it’s manufactured. As an emulsifier, it’s often used in large quantities in low-grade pet foods.

K

Kibbled Corn

A dry product that is processed by cooking cracked corn with steam pressure or another device before it’s extruded from an expeller. It is crushed into smaller pieces before it’s added to other food products. It’s a common ingredient in dog food products because it’s inexpensive and is easy to obtain. Some studies show that the ingredient is highly allergenic for pets. It’s mainly used for the nutritional value that it offers dogs because it contains fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic, which improve the dog’s skin and coat. It also contains protein, vitamin E and lutein.

Kibbled corn is commonly used as poultry, chicken, duck and waterfowl feed. It’s considered to be easily digested by dogs, is low in fiber and has high phosphorus content. It’s often easier to digest the more that it’s ground. This ingredient is energy-dense and is slower to degrade compared to cooked grains. In some cases, corn has been linked to joint swelling, bloat and aflatoxin due to contamination. It metabolizes in dogs similar to the way that sugar metabolizes in humans, which can lead to energy rushes and crashes. Manufacturers often use the ingredient because it’s subsidized by the U.S. government and is inexpensive to purchase.

Krill Meal

A specialty feed ingredient that has been used for over 15 years from whole dried and ground krill, which is a tiny crustacean found in Antarctica. Krill is considered to be a superfood of the sea and is free of pollutants or heavy metals because it feeds off of algae. It is cooked at a lower temperature and during a shorter process and is not rendered compared to other types of ingredients in commercial dog food products. The functional marine ingredient is a highly-regarded ingredient in pet food products because it contains omega-3s in the form of phospholipids. Unlike triglycerides, phospholipids are water-soluble and are gentle on animals’ stomachs. It’s also more rapidly taken into the cells to ensure that they can absorb the nutrients and minerals that it contains and obtain the health benefits that it offers.

Krill meal contains highly palatable marine proteins that add extra flavor to the dry or wet dog food that they’re added to during the manufacturing process. It’s also considered to be a natural source of choline, which promotes a healthy liver and can improve brain health. Krill meal also contains antioxidant astaxanthin, a natural protectant that can improve the dog’s immune system.

L

Liver Meal

A common dog food ingredient made from the livers of chicken, beef and pork. Liver meal is a rich source of minerals, such as copper, zinc, iron and selenium. It contains up to 100 times more nutrients compared to muscle meat and is considered to be an essential part of dogs’ diets. It’s also an excellent source of protein, and contains iron, trace minerals, vitamin A, B vitamins and CoQ10. The product also has fewer calories compared to other types of meat that are often used in commercial dog food. It even contains less fat and is ideal for weight loss in animals. Liver meal that is sourced from animals on a grass-fed diet has more nutrients and is considered to be a superfood. Although it’s used to cleanse the body of toxins, it doesn’t store them, which makes it healthy to consume for both humans and dogs.

Liver meal is also used for added flavor in dog food products and is favored for its sweetness. The ingredient is also inexpensive to purchase, which makes it easy to find in different dog food products. Too much liver meal consumption may lead to loose stools in some dogs.

M

Marigold

A plant genus Calendula that contains high amounts of flavonoids and plant-based antibiotics, which prevents unstable molecules from causing damage. Marigolds can grow up to 31 inches tall and come in vibrant shades of gold, yellow and orange. Marigold extract is a high-quality ingredient that is often found in select dog food products and has been shown to treat stomach ulcers. Marigold is a member of the ragweed family and is currently used in approximately three percent of all dog foods or 200 different products. Studies show that it can fight inflammation, bacteria and viruses that are present in the body as an anti-microbial. The natural product can also delay gastric emptying while lowering blood sugar. The lutein that it found in marigold is useful in protecting the eyes while reducing the risk of cataracts and macular degeneration. The ingredient is considered to be safe by the FDA and is used as a natural preservative in dog food. It should not be given to pregnant dogs, and some pets may have an allergic reaction to it.

Marigold also offers long-term effects by reducing the risk of cancer and can have a positive impact on tumors, melanomas and leukemias. It also helps vaccine recognition in dogs.

Meat Byproducts

Non-rendered, clean parts that are derived from slaughtered mammals. The meat is often obtained from the lungs, brain, livers, kidney, stomach, fatty tissue, bone, blood, spleen and blood. Meat byproducts are used in both dry and wet dog food products as a protein source that increases the nutritional value of the food. The ingredient is widely used in the pet food industry because it’s an inexpensive material that keeps protein levels high while also lowering the cost of processing the food. It is known to contain 60 to 70 percent of protein. The byproducts are not considered as fillers. They can offer more nutrients than typical meat and are also good for the environment by using alternative protein sources from animals that avoid competing with the human food supply. Instead of contributing to the waste and greenhouse gases typically produced by discarded organ meats, byproducts can be used to contribute to the nutrition of dogs as a socially responsible practice. The ingredient also adds to the natural flavor of dog food.

Meat byproducts are often advertised on specific dog food products because they don’t contain feathers, hair and hooves. It is not used from diseased or disabled animals.

Meat Meal

A meat concentrate that is an abundant source of protein and can be more nutritious than the meat that it was derived from. Meat meal is a stew that has been overcooked to remove all of the water content, then baked and dried. The end result is a highly concentrated protein powder. Typical chicken meat contains 70 percent water and 18 percent protein, but meat meal contains only 10 percent water and 65 percent protein, making it more nutritious. The quality of meat meal varies in the pet food industry depending on where the meat is sourced. Low-grade meals are often processed from spoiled meat or slaughterhouse waste. It can even be sourced from dying or dead animals. Some of the meat may contain hair, hooves and bones.

Meat meal has a higher ash content and has protein digestibility of 61 percent. The protein digestibility of whole meat is 95 percent. It also has a higher level of lipid oxidation products. It contains lower levels of vitamin A, D and E. Another reason that many manufacturers commonly use meat meal in their dog food is that it costs less compared to whole meat that is purchased.

N

Nucleotides

Organic molecules that are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. They are commonly found in foods that are consumed by humans and are also readily synthesized in dogs’ bodies. Different nucleotides contribute to each rung on the DNA ladder and consist of adenosine, thymidine and guanosine. It’s essential to the creation of new DNA and is used by new cells that are created. A dog’s body consistently creates new cells, which allow dogs to continue to grow and develop as old cells die. They may develop immune cells, embryos and sperm cells that support female dogs’ reproductive tract. Dogs’ bodies are not always capable of producing the nucleotides naturally, which is why they need to be obtained in the diet. They’re necessary to boost the immune system, heal injuries and reduce the risk of disease. They are also needed when the dog experiences stress.

Nucleotides are easy for dogs to obtain and are used almost immediately, which allow them to be beneficial to pets. The nucleotides are effective in allowing the immune system to function correctly and to repair it from toxins that enter the body. Studies show that animals that obtain nucleotides from their diet often have a higher survival rate compared to animals that are fed with poultry feed.

P

Phosphoric Acid

A clear and odorless liquid that contributes to the flavor of dog food and is an essential plant nutrient. It’s also used as an emulsifier and to prevent discoloration from occurring in low-grade dog food. It is shown to impact the palatability of dog foods. The taste is often dependent on how the phosphoric acid is applied to the commercial food. This preservative has been linked to reduced bone density in recent studies and is commonly used in fertilizers, detergents and pharmaceuticals. Phosphoric acid does not contain any nutritional value but is found to be safe for dogs to consume.

90 percent of manufactured phosphoric acid is used for fertilizers before they’re converted into phosphate salts. It is also used in soft drinks and as a supplement that is fed to pigs, poultry and cattle. In some cases, the phosphorus is burnt in dry air before it’s condensed into a white powder and hydrated. Phosphorus is naturally found in the body and works with calcium to form strong teeth and bones. It is even known to support kidney function while also improving the way that the body uses and stores its energy.

Poultry Meal

A high-protein commodity that is a large component of most commercial pet foods and treats. Poultry meal is processed by grinding clean and rendered parts of slaughtered poultry, which may contain undeveloped eggs, necks, head, feet, bones and feathers. The byproduct varies with each batch. The byproducts are heated at a high temperature to remove water and fat from the bone and tissue. It is sterilized, dehydrated and resized during the process. The rendering process also influences the nutritional quality of the poultry meal. The low ash level of the ingredient allows it to remain digestible for dogs.

It’s used in commercial dog food due to its nutritional value, as well as its palatability. It contains fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and amino acids. The byproducts are often collected in containers where they’re fermented with brewer’s grain or molasses to reduce their pH and prevent bacteria from developing. Acid or basic treatment is performed for stabilization before it’s dried down to only contain eight percent moisture. Fat extraction is performed to prevent the poultry meal from becoming rancid as its stored. Processing poultry meal is considered to be a viable way of mitigating environmental problems that are linked to processing poultry.

Powdered Cellulose

Wood pulp or sawdust that is derived from pine trees and is a common ingredient in commercial dog food. It is purified, mechanically disintegrated cellulose from different plant materials, which can include stalks of wheat and blades of grass. The ingredient is used because it’s inexpensive to use in both dry and canned dog food. Other types of fibers that are also used alongside cellulose include peanut shells, beet pulp, buckwheat, flaxseed, grain hulls, guar gum, fruit pectin, oat, bran and tomato pomace. Powdered cellulose is often used in dog food that promotes weight loss, controls diabetes and alleviates hairballs. Obtaining cellulose begins in the same pulping mills that manufacture paper. Similar to paper stock, it’s rolled out in long sheets.

The ingredient has low levels of fiber, which can affect the dog’s ability to absorb vital nutrients and protein. It can also increase the volume of their stool. Studies show that larger dogs don’t have a need for the plant fibers. Research has also found that it can contribute to the shredding of the intestines in dogs and can lead to inflammation with frequent consumption. Powdered cellulose been considered to be a cheap binder, anti-caking agent and emulsifier, and is often used to resemble fats in processed foods for humans.

Propylene Glycol

A synthetic organic compound that is a colorless, odorless liquid with a sweet taste. It absorbs water, is easy to metabolize and is non-toxic, which makes it safe for dogs to consume. It’s considered to be an additive that is generally safe for use in food by the FDA and is primarily used to preserve the moisture in both dry and wet dog food products.

It is commonly used in personal care products for humans and is a popular ingredient to add to commercial dog food because it’s inexpensive and versatile. It has a proven ability to cause a blood disease in some type of animals and has been banned for use in cat food by the FDA because it can cause abnormalities in their blood cells. It is considered to be safe in small and infrequent doses in dog food. The product does not have any nutrient content. It’s one of the least toxic glycols and is also used as a solvent for food colors and flavors. When ingested at toxic levels, propylene glycol can lead to central nervous system depression, along with lactic acid